Invertible Data Transformer Base Class¶
- class darts.dataprocessing.transformers.invertible_data_transformer.InvertibleDataTransformer(name='InvertibleDataTransformer', n_jobs=1, verbose=False, parallel_params=False, mask_components=True)[source]¶
Bases:
BaseDataTransformer
Abstract class for invertible transformers.
All the deriving classes have to implement the static methods
ts_transform()
andts_inverse_transform()
. For information on how to implement thets_transform()
method, please refer to theBaseDataTransformer
documentation.The
ts_inverse_transform()
method should be implemented in a virtually identical way to thets_transform()
method: it should accept aTimeSeries
as a first argument, and a dictionary of fixed parameters (as well as fitted parameters if the transformation also inherits from FittableDataTransformer) as a second argument. Additionally,ts_inverse_transform()
should also accept *args and **kwargs if additional positional/keyword arguments are expected to be passed. The only difference betweents_inverse_transform()
andts_transform()
is that the former should ‘undo’ the transformation made to a TimeSeries by the latter. Please refer to thets_inverse_transform()
documentation for further information.This class takes care of parallelizing the transformation on multiple
TimeSeries
when possible.- Parameters
name (
str
) – The data transformer’s namen_jobs (
int
) – The number of jobs to run in parallel. Parallel jobs are created only when a Sequence[TimeSeries] is passed as input to a method, parallelising operations regarding different TimeSeries. Defaults to 1 (sequential). Setting the parameter to -1 means using all the available processors. Note: for a small amount of data, the parallelisation overhead could end up increasing the total required amount of time.verbose (
bool
) – Optionally, whether to print operations progressparallel_params (
Union
[bool
,Sequence
[str
]]) – Optionally, specifies which fixed parameters (i.e. the attributes initialized in the child-most class’s __init__) take on different values for different parallel jobs. Fixed parameters specified by parallel_params are assumed to be a Sequence of values that should be used for that parameter in each parallel job; the length of this Sequence should equal the number of parallel jobs. If parallel_params=True, every fixed parameter will take on a different value for each parallel job. If parallel_params=False, every fixed parameter will take on the same value for each parallel job. If parallel_params is a Sequence of fixed attribute names, only those attribute names specified will take on different values between different parallel jobs.mask_components (
bool
) – Optionally, whether to automatically apply any provided component_mask`s to the `TimeSeries inputs passed to transform, fit, inverse_transform, or fit_transform. If True, any specified component_mask will be applied to each input timeseries before passing them to the called method; the masked components will also be automatically ‘unmasked’ in the returned TimeSeries. If False, then component_mask (if provided) will be passed as a keyword argument, but won’t automatically be applied to the input timeseries. See apply_component_mask method of BaseDataTransformer for further details.
Notes
Note: the
ts_transform()
andts_inverse_transform()
methods are designed to be static methods instead of instance methods to allow an efficient parallelisation also when the scaler instance is storing a non-negligible amount of data. Using instance methods would imply copying the instance’s data through multiple processes, which can easily introduce a bottleneck and nullify parallelisation benefits.Example
>>> from darts.dataprocessing.transformers import InvertibleDataTransformer >>> from darts.utils.timeseries_generation import linear_timeseries >>> >>> class SimpleTransform(InvertibleDataTransformer): >>> >>> def __init__(self, a): >>> self._a = a >>> super().__init__() >>> >>> @staticmethod >>> def ts_transform(series, params, **kwargs): >>> a = params['fixed']['_a'] >>> b = kwargs.pop('b') >>> return a*series + b >>> >>> @staticmethod >>> def ts_inverse_transform(series, params, **kwargs): >>> a = params['fixed']['_a'] >>> b = kwargs.pop('b') >>> return (series - b) / a >>> >>> series = linear_timeseries(length=5) >>> print(series) <TimeSeries (DataArray) (time: 5, component: 1, sample: 1)> array([[[0. ]],
[[0.25]],
[[0.5 ]],
[[0.75]],
[[1. ]]])
Coordinates: * time (time) datetime64[ns] 2000-01-01 2000-01-02 … 2000-01-05 * component (component) object ‘linear’ Dimensions without coordinates: sample .. attribute:: static_covariates
None
- hierarchy¶
None
>>> transform = SimpleTransform(a=2) >>> series = transform.transform(series, b=3) >>> print(series) <TimeSeries (DataArray) (time: 5, component: 1, sample: 1)> array([[[3. ]],
[[3.5]],
[[4. ]],
[[4.5]],
[[5. ]]])
Coordinates: * time (time) datetime64[ns] 2000-01-01 2000-01-02 … 2000-01-05 * component (component) object ‘linear’ Dimensions without coordinates: sample .. attribute:: static_covariates
None
- hierarchy¶
None
>>> series = transform.inverse_transform(series, b=3) >>> print(series) <TimeSeries (DataArray) (time: 5, component: 1, sample: 1)> array([[[0. ]],
[[0.25]],
[[0.5 ]],
[[0.75]],
[[1. ]]])
Coordinates: * time (time) datetime64[ns] 2000-01-01 2000-01-02 … 2000-01-05 * component (component) object ‘linear’ Dimensions without coordinates: sample .. attribute:: static_covariates
None
- hierarchy¶
None
Attributes
Name of the data transformer.
Methods
apply_component_mask
(series[, ...])Extracts components specified by component_mask from series
inverse_transform
(series, *args[, ...])Inverse transforms a (sequence of) series by calling the user-implemented ts_inverse_transform method.
set_n_jobs
(value)Set the number of processors to be used by the transformer while processing multiple
TimeSeries
.set_verbose
(value)Set the verbosity status.
stack_samples
(vals)Creates an array of shape (n_timesteps * n_samples, n_components) from either a TimeSeries or the array_values of a TimeSeries.
transform
(series, *args[, component_mask])Transforms a (sequence of) of series by calling the user-implemeneted ts_transform method.
ts_inverse_transform
(series, params)The function that will be applied to each series when
inverse_transform()
is called.ts_transform
(series, params)The function that will be applied to each series when
transform()
is called.unapply_component_mask
(series, vals[, ...])Adds back components previously removed by component_mask in apply_component_mask method.
unstack_samples
(vals[, n_timesteps, ...])Reshapes the 2D array returned by stack_samples back into an array of shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples); this 'undoes' the reshaping of stack_samples.
- static apply_component_mask(series, component_mask=None, return_ts=False)¶
Extracts components specified by component_mask from series
- Parameters
series (
TimeSeries
) – input TimeSeries to be fed into transformer.component_mask (
Optional
[ndarray
]) – Optionally, np.ndarray boolean mask of shape (n_components, 1) specifying which components to extract from series. The i`th component of `series is kept only if component_mask[i] = True. If not specified, no masking is performed.return_ts (
bool
) – Optionally, specifies that a TimeSeries should be returned, rather than an np.ndarray.
- Returns
TimeSeries (if return_ts = True) or np.ndarray (if return_ts = False) with only those components specified by component_mask remaining.
- Return type
masked
- inverse_transform(series, *args, component_mask=None, **kwargs)[source]¶
Inverse transforms a (sequence of) series by calling the user-implemented ts_inverse_transform method.
In case a sequence or list of lists is passed as input data, this function takes care of parallelising the transformation of multiple series in the sequence at the same time. Additionally, if the mask_components attribute was set to True when instantiating InvertibleDataTransformer, then any provided component_mask`s will be automatically applied to each input `TimeSeries; please refer to ‘Notes’ for further details on component masking.
Any additionally specified *args and **kwargs are automatically passed to ts_inverse_transform.
- Parameters
series (
Union
[TimeSeries
,Sequence
[TimeSeries
],Sequence
[Sequence
[TimeSeries
]]]) – The series to inverse-transform. If a single TimeSeries, returns a single series. If a sequence of TimeSeries, returns a list of series. The series should be in the same order as the sequence used to fit the transformer. If a list of lists of TimeSeries, returns a list of lists of series. This can for example be the output of ForecastingModel.historical_forecasts() when using multiple series. Each inner list should contain TimeSeries related to the same series. The order of inner lists should be the same as the sequence used to fit the transformer.args – Additional positional arguments for the
ts_inverse_transform()
methodcomponent_mask (Optional[np.ndarray] = None) – Optionally, a 1-D boolean np.ndarray of length
series.n_components
that specifies which components of the underlying series the inverse transform should consider.kwargs – Additional keyword arguments for the
ts_inverse_transform()
method
- Returns
Inverse transformed data.
- Return type
Union[TimeSeries, List[TimeSeries], List[List[TimeSeries]]]
Notes
If the mask_components attribute was set to True when instantiating InvertibleDataTransformer, then any provided component_mask`s will be automatically applied to each `TimeSeries input to transform; component_mask`s are simply boolean arrays of shape `(series.n_components,) that specify which components of each series should be transformed using ts_inverse_transform and which components should not. If component_mask[i] is True, then the i`th component of each `series will be transformed by ts_inverse_transform. Conversely, if component_mask[i] is False, the i`th component will be removed from each `series before being passed to ts_inverse_transform; after transforming this masked series, the untransformed i`th component will be ‘added back’ to the output. Note that automatic `component_mask`ing can only be performed if the `ts_inverse_transform does not change the number of timesteps in each series; if this were to happen, then the transformed and untransformed components are unable to be concatenated back together along the component axis.
If mask_components was set to False when instantiating InvertibleDataTransformer, then any provided component_masks will be passed as a keyword argument ts_inverse_transform; the user can then manually specify how the component_mask should be applied to each series.
- property name¶
Name of the data transformer.
- set_n_jobs(value)¶
Set the number of processors to be used by the transformer while processing multiple
TimeSeries
.- Parameters
value (
int
) – New n_jobs value. Set to -1 for using all the available cores.
- set_verbose(value)¶
Set the verbosity status.
True for enabling the detailed report about scaler’s operation progress, False for no additional information.
- Parameters
value (
bool
) – New verbosity status
- static stack_samples(vals)¶
Creates an array of shape (n_timesteps * n_samples, n_components) from either a TimeSeries or the array_values of a TimeSeries.
Each column of the returned array corresponds to a component (dimension) of the series and is formed by concatenating all of the samples associated with that component together. More specifically, the i`th column is formed by concatenating `[component_i_sample_1, component_i_sample_2, …, component_i_sample_n].
Stacking is useful when implementing a transformation that applies the exact same change to every timestep in the timeseries. In such cases, the samples of each component can be stacked together into a single column, and the transformation can then be applied to each column, thereby ‘vectorising’ the transformation over all samples of that component; the unstack_samples method can then be used to reshape the output. For transformations that depend on the time_index or the temporal ordering of the observations, stacking should not be employed.
- Parameters
vals (
Union
[ndarray
,TimeSeries
]) – Timeseries or np.ndarray of shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples) to be ‘stacked’.- Returns
np.ndarray of shape (n_timesteps * n_samples, n_components), where the i`th column is formed by concatenating all of the samples of the `i`th component in `vals.
- Return type
stacked
- transform(series, *args, component_mask=None, **kwargs)¶
Transforms a (sequence of) of series by calling the user-implemeneted ts_transform method.
In case a
Sequence[TimeSeries]
is passed as input data, this function takes care of parallelising the transformation of multiple series in the sequence at the same time. Additionally, if the mask_components attribute was set to True when instantiating BaseDataTransformer, then any provided component_mask`s will be automatically applied to each input `TimeSeries; please refer to ‘Notes’ for further details on component masking.Any additionally specified *args and **kwargs are automatically passed to ts_transform.
- Parameters
series (
Union
[TimeSeries
,Sequence
[TimeSeries
]]) – (sequence of) series to be transformed.args – Additional positional arguments for each
ts_transform()
method callcomponent_mask (Optional[np.ndarray] = None) – Optionally, a 1-D boolean np.ndarray of length
series.n_components
that specifies which components of the underlying series the transform should consider. If the mask_components attribute was set to True when instantiating BaseDataTransformer, then the component mask will be automatically applied to each TimeSeries input. Otherwise, component_mask will be provided as an addition keyword argument to ts_transform. See ‘Notes’ for further details.kwargs – Additional keyword arguments for each
ts_transform()
method call
- Returns
Transformed data.
- Return type
Union[TimeSeries, List[TimeSeries]]
Notes
If the mask_components attribute was set to True when instantiating BaseDataTransformer, then any provided component_mask`s will be automatically applied to each `TimeSeries input to transform; component_mask`s are simply boolean arrays of shape `(series.n_components,) that specify which components of each series should be transformed using ts_transform and which components should not. If component_mask[i] is True, then the i`th component of each `series will be transformed by ts_transform. Conversely, if component_mask[i] is False, the i`th component will be removed from each `series before being passed to ts_transform; after transforming this masked series, the untransformed i`th component will be ‘added back’ to the output. Note that automatic `component_mask`ing can only be performed if the `ts_transform does not change the number of timesteps in each series; if this were to happen, then the transformed and untransformed components are unable to be concatenated back together along the component axis.
If mask_components was set to False when instantiating BaseDataTransformer, then any provided component_masks will be passed as a keyword argument ts_transform; the user can then manually specify how the component_mask should be applied to each series.
- abstract static ts_inverse_transform(series, params)[source]¶
The function that will be applied to each series when
inverse_transform()
is called.The function must take as first argument a
TimeSeries
object and, as a second argument, a dictionary containing the fixed and/or fitted parameters of the transformation; this function should then return an inverse transformedTimeSeries
object (i.e. ts_inverse_transform should ‘undo’ the transformation performed by ts_transform).- The params dictionary can contain up to two keys:
1. params[‘fixed’] stores the fixed parameters of the transformation (i.e. attributed defined in the __init__ method of the child-most class before super().__init__ is called); params[‘fixed’] is a dictionary itself, whose keys are the names of the fixed parameter attributes. For example, if _my_fixed_param is defined as an attribute in the child-most class, then this fixed parameter value can be accessed through params[‘fixed’][‘_my_fixed_param’]. 2. If the transform inherits from the
FittableDataTransformer
class, then params[‘fitted’] will store the fitted parameters of the transformation; the fitted parameters are simply the output(s) returned by the ts_fit function, whatever those output(s) may be. SeeFittableDataTransformer
for further details about fitted parameters.
Any positional/keyword argument supplied to the transform method are passed as positional/keyword arguments to ts_inverse_transform; hence, ts_inverse_transform should also accept *args and/or **kwargs if positional/keyword arguments are passed to transform. Note that if the mask_components attribute of InvertibleDataTransformer is set to False, then the component_mask provided to transform will be passed as an additional keyword argument to ts_inverse_transform.
The BaseDataTransformer class, from which InvertibleDataTransformer inherits, includes some helper methods which may prove useful when implementing a ts_inverse_transform function:
1. The apply_component_mask and unapply_component_mask methods, which apply and ‘unapply’ component_mask`s to a `TimeSeries respectively; these methods are automatically called in transform if the mask_component attribute of InvertibleDataTransformer is set to True, but you may want to manually call them if you set mask_components to False and wish to manually specify how component_mask`s are applied to a `TimeSeries. 2. The stack_samples method, which stacks all the samples in a TimeSeries along the component axis, so that the TimeSeries goes from shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples) to shape (n_timesteps, n_components * n_samples). This stacking is useful if a pointwise inverse transform is being implemented (i.e. transforming the value at time t depends only on the value of the series at that time t). Once transformed, the stacked TimeSeries can be ‘unstacked’ using the unstack_samples method.
This method is not implemented in the base class and must be implemented in the deriving classes.
- Parameters
series (
TimeSeries
) – series to be transformed.params (
Mapping
[str
,Any
]) – Dictionary containing the parameters of the transformation function. Fixed parameters (i.e. attributes defined in the child-most class of the transformation prior to calling super.__init__()) are stored under the ‘fixed’ key. If the transformation inherits from the FittableDataTransformer class, then the fitted parameters of the transformation (i.e. the values returned by ts_fit) are stored under the ‘fitted’ key.args – Any additional keyword arguments provided to inverse_transform.
kwargs – Any additional keyword arguments provided to inverse_transform. Note that if the mask_component attribute of InvertibleDataTransformer is set to False, then component_mask will be passed as a keyword argument.
Notes
This method is designed to be a static method instead of instance methods to allow an efficient parallelisation also when the scaler instance is storing a non-negligible amount of data. Using instance methods would imply copying the instance’s data through multiple processes, which can easily introduce a bottleneck and nullify parallelisation benefits.
- Return type
- abstract static ts_transform(series, params)¶
The function that will be applied to each series when
transform()
is called.This method is not implemented in the base class and must be implemented in the deriving classes.
The function must take as first argument a
TimeSeries
object and, as a second argument, a dictionary containing the fixed and/or fitted parameters of the transformation; this function should then return a transformedTimeSeries
object.- The params dictionary can contain up to two keys:
1. params[‘fixed’] stores the fixed parameters of the transformation (i.e. attributed defined in the __init__ method of the child-most class before super().__init__ is called); params[‘fixed’] is a dictionary itself, whose keys are the names of the fixed parameter attributes. For example, if _my_fixed_param is defined as an attribute in the child-most class, then this fixed parameter value can be accessed through params[‘fixed’][‘_my_fixed_param’]. 2. If the transform inherits from the
FittableDataTransformer
class, then params[‘fitted’] will store the fitted parameters of the transformation; the fitted parameters are simply the output(s) returned by the ts_fit function, whatever those output(s) may be. SeeFittableDataTransformer
for further details about fitted parameters.
Any positional/keyword argument supplied to the transform method are passed as positional/keyword arguments to ts_transform; hence, ts_transform should also accept *args and/or **kwargs if positional/keyword arguments are passed to transform. Note that if the mask_components attribute of BaseDataTransformer is set to False, then the component_mask provided to transform will be passed as an additional keyword argument to ts_transform.
The BaseDataTransformer class includes some helper methods which may prove useful when implementing a ts_transform function:
1. The apply_component_mask and unapply_component_mask methods, which apply and ‘unapply’ component_mask`s to a `TimeSeries respectively; these methods are automatically called in transform if the mask_component attribute of BaseDataTransformer is set to True, but you may want to manually call them if you set mask_components to False and wish to manually specify how component_mask`s are applied to a `TimeSeries. 2. The stack_samples method, which stacks all the samples in a TimeSeries along the component axis, so that the TimeSeries goes from shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples) to shape (n_timesteps, n_components * n_samples). This stacking is useful if a pointwise transform is being implemented (i.e. transforming the value at time t depends only on the value of the series at that time t). Once transformed, the stacked TimeSeries can be ‘unstacked’ using the unstack_samples method.
- Parameters
series (
TimeSeries
) – series to be transformed.params (
Mapping
[str
,Any
]) – Dictionary containing the parameters of the transformation function. Fixed parameters (i.e. attributes defined in the child-most class of the transformation prior to calling super.__init__()) are stored under the ‘fixed’ key. If the transformation inherits from the FittableDataTransformer class, then the fitted parameters of the transformation (i.e. the values returned by ts_fit) are stored under the ‘fitted’ key.args – Any poisitional arguments provided in addition to series when
kwargs – Any additional keyword arguments provided to transform. Note that if the mask_component attribute of BaseDataTransformer is set to False, then component_mask will be passed as a keyword argument.
Notes
This method is designed to be a static method instead of instance method to allow an efficient parallelisation also when the scaler instance is storing a non-negligible amount of data. Using instance methods would imply copying the instance’s data through multiple processes, which can easily introduce a bottleneck and nullify parallelisation benefits.
- Return type
- static unapply_component_mask(series, vals, component_mask=None)¶
Adds back components previously removed by component_mask in apply_component_mask method.
- Parameters
series (
Union
[TimeSeries
,Sequence
[TimeSeries
]]) – input TimeSeries that was fed into transformer.vals (
Union
[ndarray
,Sequence
[ndarray
],TimeSeries
,Sequence
[TimeSeries
]]) – np.ndarray or TimeSeries to ‘unmask’component_mask (
Optional
[ndarray
]) – Optionally, np.ndarray boolean mask of shape (n_components, 1) specifying which components were extracted from series. If given, insert vals back into the columns of the original array. If not specified, nothing is ‘unmasked’.
- Returns
TimeSeries (if vals is a TimeSeries) or np.ndarray (if vals is an np.ndarray) with those components previously removed by component_mask now ‘added back’.
- Return type
unmasked
- static unstack_samples(vals, n_timesteps=None, n_samples=None, series=None)¶
Reshapes the 2D array returned by stack_samples back into an array of shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples); this ‘undoes’ the reshaping of stack_samples. Either n_components, n_samples, or series must be specified.
- Parameters
vals (
ndarray
) – np.ndarray of shape (n_timesteps * n_samples, n_components) to be ‘unstacked’.n_timesteps (
Optional
[int
]) – Optionally, the number of timesteps in the array originally passed to stack_samples. Does not need to be provided if series is specified.n_samples (
Optional
[int
]) – Optionally, the number of samples in the array originally passed to stack_samples. Does not need to be provided if series is specified.series (
Optional
[TimeSeries
]) – Optionally, the TimeSeries object used to create vals; n_samples is inferred from this.
- Returns
np.ndarray of shape (n_timesteps, n_components, n_samples).
- Return type
unstacked